» Types of Dyes
Types of Dyes
Dyes may be classified in several ways. These are classified based on
the commercial names and chemical nature. Dyes are complex unsaturated
aromatic compounds fulfilling characteristics like intense color,
solubility, substantiveness and fastness. Dyes can be defined as the
different type of coloring particles which differ in each type from the
other in chemical composition and are used for coloring fabrics in different
colors and shades which are completely soluble in liquid media.
Here we will try to give a general view of the types of dyes that can be
categorized under a few major classes.
Chemical classification of the Dyes
According to a system of chemical classification,
dyes can be divided according to the nature of their Chromophore.
|Anthraquinone dyes, derivatives of anthraquinone >C=O and>C=C
- Diarylmethane dyes, based on diphenyl methane
- Triarylmethane dyes, based on triphenyl methane
|Azo dyes, based on a -N=N- azo structure
|Acridine dyes, derivatives of acridine >C=N-and>C=C
|Leather and textile dyes
||Leather and textile
|Cyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine
|Diazonium dyes, based on diazonium salts
|Nitro dyes, based on the -NO2 nitro functional group
|Nitroso dyes, are based on a -N=O nitroso functional
|Phthalocyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine >C=N
|Quinone-imine dyes, derivatives of quinone
||Wool and paper
|Xanthene dyes, derived from xanthene -O-C6H4-O
||Cotton, Silk and Wool
|Indophenol dyes, derivatives of indophenol >C=N-and>C=O
|Oxazone dyes, derivatives of oxazone
|Oxazin dyes, derivatives of oxazin -C-N=C =C-O-C=
|Thiazin dyes, derivatives of thiazin
|Thiazole dyes, derivatives of thiazole >C=N-and-S-O=
|Fluorene dyes, derivatives of fluorene
|Rhodamine dyes, derivatives of rhodamine
Dyes according to the nuclear structure
According to the nuclear structure, dyes can be
categorized into two types:
- Anionic Dyes
- Cationic Dyes
Industrial Classification of the Dyes
Dyes are now classified according to how they are
used in the dyeing process. Majority of the dyestuff is primarily consumed
by the textile industry, and 60% of the dyestuffs are based on azo dyes.
Major classes of dyes in textile finishing is given here:
Classification based on the source of materials
A very common classification of the dyestuff is
based on the source from which it is made.
Other important dyes
- Natural Dyes
- Synthetic Dyes
A number of other classes of dyes have also been established, that includes
- Fluorescent Dyes - A very innovative dye. Used for
application in sports good etc.
- Fuel Dyes - Used in fuels.
- Leather Dyes - Used for leather.
- Leuco Dyes - Has a wide variety of applications including
electronic industries and papers.
- Inkjet Dyes - Writing industry including the inkjet printers.
- Oxidation Dyes - Used mainly for hair.
- Optical Brighteners - Used primarily for textile fibres and
- Smoke Dyes - Used in military activities.
- Solvent Dyes - For application in wood staining and
production of colored lacquers, solvent inks, waxes and coloring oils
- Sublimation Dyes - For application in textile printing.