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Types of Dyes

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Dyes may be classified in several ways. These are classified based on the commercial names and chemical nature. Dyes are complex unsaturated aromatic compounds fulfilling characteristics like intense color, solubility, substantiveness and fastness. Dyes can be defined as the different type of coloring particles which differ in each type from the other in chemical composition and are used for coloring fabrics in different colors and shades which are completely soluble in liquid media.

Here we will try to give a general view of the types of dyes that can be categorized under a few major classes.

Chemical classification of the Dyes

According to a system of chemical classification, dyes can be divided according to the nature of their Chromophore.
Group Uses
Anthraquinone dyes, derivatives of anthraquinone >C=O and>C=C Textiles
Arylmethane dyes
  • Diarylmethane dyes, based on diphenyl methane
  • Triarylmethane dyes, based on triphenyl methane
Azo dyes, based on a -N=N- azo structure
Acridine dyes, derivatives of acridine >C=N-and>C=C Textiles, leather
Leather and textile dyes Leather and textile
Cyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine
Diazonium dyes, based on diazonium salts
Nitro dyes, based on the -NO2 nitro functional group
Nitroso dyes, are based on a -N=O nitroso functional
Phthalocyanine dyes, derivatives of phthalocyanine >C=N Paper
Quinone-imine dyes, derivatives of quinone Wool and paper
Xanthene dyes, derived from xanthene -O-C6H4-O Cotton, Silk and Wool
Indophenol dyes, derivatives of indophenol >C=N-and>C=O color photography
Oxazone dyes, derivatives of oxazone
Oxazin dyes, derivatives of oxazin -C-N=C =C-O-C= Calico printing
Thiazin dyes, derivatives of thiazin
Thiazole dyes, derivatives of thiazole >C=N-and-S-O= Intermediate
Fluorene dyes, derivatives of fluorene
Rhodamine dyes, derivatives of rhodamine
Pyronin dyes

Dyes according to the nuclear structure

According to the nuclear structure, dyes can be categorized into two types:

Industrial Classification of the Dyes

Dyes are now classified according to how they are used in the dyeing process. Majority of the dyestuff is primarily consumed by the textile industry, and 60% of the dyestuffs are based on azo dyes.

Major classes of dyes in textile finishing is given here:

Classification based on the source of materials

A very common classification of the dyestuff is based on the source from which it is made.
Other important dyes
A number of other classes of dyes have also been established, that includes the following:

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